Anime dan Manga [History+Genre]

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Anime dan Manga [History+Genre]

Post by ~Jirichi Ryunashira~ on Tue Jun 17, 2008 2:54 pm

Sedikit sejarah mengenai Anime dan Manga, serta genrenya. Cool

Anime came from the word "animation", originating in Japan through the roots of manga. Manga is the japanese word for comics. Manga, literally translated, means "whimsical pictures". The word first came into common usage in the late 18th century with the publication of such works as Santō Kyōden's picturebook "Shiji no yukikai" (1798), and in the early 19th century with such works as Aikawa Minwa's "Manga hyakujo" (1814) and the celebrated Hokusai manga containing assorted drawings from the sketchbook of the famous ukiyo-e artist Hokusai. The first user of the word "manga" as its modern usage is Rakuten Kitazawa.
Since the 1950s, manga have steadily become a major part of the Japanese publishing industry, representing a 481 billion yen market in Japan in 2006 (approximately $4.4 billion dollars). Manga have also became very popular worldwide. In Japan, manga are usually serialized in telephone book-size manga magazines, often containing many stories each presented in a single episode to be continued in the next issue. If the series is successful, collected chapters may be republished in paperback books called tankōbon. A manga artist (mangaka in Japanese) typically works with a few assistants in a small studio and is associated with a creative editor from a commercial publishing company. If a manga series is popular enough, it may be animated after or even during its run,[16] although sometimes manga are drawn centering on previously existing live-action or animated films. Manga and manga-influenced comics, among original works, exist in other parts of the world, particularly in South Korea ("manhwa") and in the People's Republic of China, including Hong Kong ("manhua"). In France, "la nouvelle manga" is a form of bande dessinée drawn in styles influenced by Japanese manga. In the U.S., manga-like comics are called Amerimanga, world manga, or original English-language manga (OEL manga).
Arrow Osamu Tezuka: The God of Manga

The history of anime begins at the start of the 20th century, when Japanese filmmakers experimented with the animation techniques that were being explored in France, Germany, the United States, and Russia. The oldest known anime produced was screened on 1917; it was a two minute clip of a samurai trying to test a new sword on his target, only to suffer defeat. The success of Disney's 1937 feature film Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs influenced Japanese animators. Osamu Tezuka's work and that of other pioneers in the field, inspired characteristics and genres that are fundamental elements of anime today.

Generally, the most common form of anime drawings are "exaggerated physical features such as large eyes, big hair and elongated limbs... and dramatically shaped speech bubbles, speed lines and onomatopoeic, exclamatory typography."

Body proportions emulated in anime come from proportions of the human body. The height of the head is considered as the base unit of proportion. Head heights can vary as long as the remainder of the body remains proportional. Most anime characters are about seven to eight heads tall, and extreme heights are set around nine heads tall.

Variations to proportion can be modded. Chibi or super deformed characters feature a non-proportionally small body compared to the head. Sometimes specific body parts, like legs, are shortened or elongated for added emphasis. Mostly chibi are two to four heads tall. Wide variety of facial expressions are used by characters to denote moods and thoughts.

Other stylistic elements are common as well; often in comedic anime, characters that are shocked or surprised will perform a "face fault", in which they display an extremely exaggerated expression. Angry characters may exhibit a "vein" or "stressmark" effect, where lines representing bulging veins will appear on their forehead. Angry women will sometimes summon a mallet from nowhere and strike someone with it, leading to the concept of Hammerspace and cartoon physics. Male characters will develop a bloody nose around their female love interests (typically to indicate arousal, based on an old wives' tale).Embarrassed characters either produce a massive sweat-drop or produce a visibly red blush beneath the eyes, especially as a manifestation of repressed romantic feelings.

The basics of anime are based on traditional animation. While anime is considered separate from cartoons, anime still uses multiple still images in rapid succession to produce the animated visual effect. Like all animation, the production processes of storyboarding, voice acting, character design, cel production, etc. still apply. With improvements in computer technology, computer animation increased the efficiency of the whole production process.

Anime is often considered a form of limited animation. That means that stylistically, even in bigger productions the conventions of limited animation are used to fool the eye into thinking there is more movement than there is. Many of the techniques used a comprised with cost-cutting measures while working under a set budget. Anime scenes place emphasis on achieving three-dimensional views. Backgrounds depict the scenes' atmosphere.
Arrow Ribbon no Kishi: the first manga specifically targeted at young girls by Osamu Tezuka.

Genres:

Arrow Action/Adventure: primarily focuses on battles, war, and physical competition. Martial arts, weapon fighting, or other action oriented material are usually featured.

Arrow Drama: primarily has a high degree of character development and emotional themes. Many center on relationship complications.

Arrow Game Based: primarily revolves around some sort of card or board game.

Arrow Horror use darker and/or supernatural themes.

Arrow Science fiction: consists of futuristic elements, particularly featuring future science and technology. They can be drawn from current scientific studies and inventions or created to meet the needs of the world.

Arrow Progressive or "Art films": are extremely stylized.

Demographic:


Arrow Shōjo is Japanese for "young lady" or "little girl". These are generally targeted at girls.
Arrow Shōnen is Japanese for "young boy".
Arrow Seinen is Japanese for "young man" and normally includes teenage or young male adults.
Arrow Josei is Japanese for "young woman".
Arrow Kodomo is Japanese for "child".

Thematic:

Arrow Bishōjo is Japanese for "beautiful girl", and a blanket term that features pretty girl characters. Sometimes conflated with Moè.

Arrow Bishōnen is Japanese for "beautiful boy", and a blanket term that can be used to describe any anime that features "pretty" and elegant boys and men.

Arrow Sentai is literally a "fighting team" in Japanese. It refers to any show that involves a superhero team.

Arrow Robot/Mecha features real robots or super robots.

Arrow Post-Apocalyptic simply deals with a post-apocalyptic world.

Arrow Mahō shōjo is a subgenre of shōjo known for "Magical Girl" stories.

Arrow Mahō shōnen is a male equivalent of Mahō Shōjo.

Arrow Moé features characters with perky, cute, weak, or naïve behaviors. In some way, they are not overly independent.

Arrow Expertise specializes with a specific topic in depth. Topics range from sports, the arts, and cooking.

Arrow Lolicon ("Lolita Complex") is the sexualization of under-aged female characters, the name coming from the titular character of Vladimir Nabokov's Lolita.

Arrow Shotacon ("Shōtarō Complex") is the sexualization of under-aged male characters, the name coming from the lead child actor from Tetsujin-nijūhachi-gō.

Arrow Harem is a genre which focuses on a male character surrounded by the romance of multiple female characters. Typically, the male cohabits with at least one female.

Arrow Reverse Harem reverses the gender balance in harem, where a female character is romantically involved with many male characters. It is more often than not a Shōjo or Josei Anime.

Arrow Ecchi is Japanese for "indecent sexuality", derived from the Japanese pronunciation of the letter "H", (the origin of the term is not well known, even in Japan.

Arrow Hentai is Japanese for "abnormal" or "perverted". This term is synonymous to pornography or erotica, as hentai content specifically consists of such.

Arrow Shōjo-ai or Yuri is Japanese for "girl-love". These focus on love and romance between female characters. It is often being replaced by the term "Girls Love" (GL). Yuri is like Shōjo-ai, but sometimes involves older characters or explicit sexual activity.

Arrow Shōnen-ai is Japanese for 'boy-love'. These focus on love and romance between male characters. The term "Shōnen-ai" is being phased out in Japan due to its other meaning of pederasty, and is being replaced by the term "Boys Love" (BL).

Arrow Yaoi is like "Shōnen-ai" but often involving older characters and explicit sexual activity.

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Re: Anime dan Manga [History+Genre]

Post by utoTIA on Sun Jun 29, 2008 5:31 pm

hihiihihi..
tenggss jeng ryuuna.

saya baru ngerti dah apa tuh yuri dan yaoi..^^

good posting..!

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Re: Anime dan Manga [History+Genre]

Post by Ryuukii on Tue Jul 01, 2008 4:40 am

Shōnen

hohohoh.......... Razz

arigato nee~

udah share........ Very Happy

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Re: Anime dan Manga [History+Genre]

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